Architecture is an art of organizing the space not only functionally but beautifully. To me the Scope of Architecture is the entire built environment. It includes the designing of a whole city or its subdivisions. The scope of Architecture primarily lies in the parts explained under-
- Site Planning
- Building Design
(A) Site Planning -:
Site Planning deals with the basic layout of the site, its functional approach and correct orientation. In simple words, site planning is studying compatibility at the site level. It is broadly classified in further six parts –
Zoning is nothing but the segregation of various zones from each other. It is very essential to perform zoning before starting the actual problem. Usually, zoning is carried out as residential zone, commercial zone, recreational zone, private zone, public zone, service zone, etc.
Usually, road, pedestrian circulation along with the parking is studied at the site level. All this circulation is carried out on site outside the constructed area.
It is very essential to orient the property in an adequate manner. It is essential on the technical level. North mark is set on the site in order to get the cluster in proper orientation depending upon the sun’s orientation and climatic conditions of that place. Some of the best orientations are-
Bedroom – South East
Drawing Room – North
Living Room – South & South East
Kitchen – East
Toilets – West
In case of a composite climate, west sun is avoided to maximum extent and if possible, only dead parts of a building are placed on west.
4 Mass-Space Relationships:-
It is very essential to obtain the mass space relationship in order to set the height of the building. Basically, it is a relationship of the height of building to the width of the road i.e. width of the road should be 2/3rd of the height of the building.
Landscaping makes the site look more professional. Landscaping can be done using various features like green spaces, water bodies, land forms, street furniture.
- Green Spaces – These include all the plants and shrubs used.
- Water bodies – It constitutes of rivers, lakes, ponds, fountains, water falls present on the site or surrounding the site.
- Land Forms – Mounds, flat lands or contours constitute the land forms
- Street Furniture- Can vary poles, benches, kiosks or sheltered places.
This part of site planning covers the various facilities as drainage, water supply, sewage system, electrical communication.
(B) Building Design -:
The designing of the exact structure comes under building design. It is sub-divided into six parts-
1. Building Types:-
Under this heading we need to specify the type of building, whether it is residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, etc.
2. Internal Zoning:-
It is basically the functional relationship between the horizontal and vertical level. The zoning of interiors of a building is done by demarcating the public zones from private and service zones.
3. Internal Circulation;-
It is very important to keep in mind the placements of various components of circulation and their sizes while designing. Internal circulation is carried out in 2 levels-
Horizontal Circulation: It includes the features like corridors, lobby, veranda, porch, and balcony.
Vertical Circulation: It includes stair cases, ramps, elevators and elevators.
4. Building Materials:-
Selection of materials for each component has to be done after analyzing the usage and climatic conditions. Usually it depends upon the function of the space.
- Floor – terrazzo, marble, fiberboards, floor mats, wooden battens, etc.
- Wall – brick, stone, concrete blocks, wooden battens, etc.
- Roof – R.C.C, R.B.C, wood, slates, tiles, steel truss.
5. Furniture Layout:-
While designing a structure, its furniture setting should also be kept in mind. There is need to study the placement of furniture components, sizes and clearances between different components.
6. Architectural Expression:-
It is by the virtue of its form, structure or materials used on its external facade. For an instance, by seeing a cross plan it defines a church.
These all factors caters to the scope of architecture.